The Druid's Garden

Spiritual Journeys in Tending the Land, Permaculture, Wildcrafting, and Regenerative Living

The Bee and the Machine: Moving Beyond Efficiency and towards Nature-Centeredness November 24, 2019

Animals have spirit!

Over the course of the last four centuries, the Western World has created a set of “unshakable” principles concerning the natural world: that nature is just another machine, that animals don’t feel and do not have souls, that plants and animals aren’t sentient. Descartes, writing in the 1600s during the early rise of mechanization, was one of the first to make this claim. He posited that animals are mechanical automata, that is, they are beings without souls, feelings, or pain. These same ideas were not limited to non-human life; we see the same kind of thinking being applied to justify slavery, genocide, colonialization, and a list of other atrocities. When we combine this kind of thinking with the economic ideas of “growth at all costs” and “efficiency”, we end up in the dystopian fiction we find ourselves living in right now. I want to take some time to explore these concepts today and how we might think through them, and move beyond them, as part of our own nature-centered spiritual practices.

 

Perhaps we think ourselves evolved beyond such ideas in the 21st century, but a look at basic industrialized animal husbandry and farming practices tells a different tale. These same underlying ideas that allowed Descartes and his contemporaries to strip the enchantment from the world and encourage the mechanized reality we live in are still very much pervasive in our society. Efficiency and “savings” allow most people to tolerate factory farms and look the other way over animal testing. Everything moves very fast.  If we can simply say animals have no souls, no pain, and are essentially living automatons, it makes it easier to operate mechanized systems surrounding their raising, slaughter, and/or harvest (meat, eggs, honey, fur, leather etc). Unfortunately, I see this mentality strongly even among my neighbors here in rural Western PA. It is hard to see how “farm animals” are treated and conceived as simply objects that are meant to serve a purpose and be discarded. For example, earlier this year we were planning on getting some fiber goats as pets and companions and to help us clear areas of our land that were full of brush. After hearing that some of the plants on our land might be toxic to goats, I had called and talked with a PA state extension officer to learn more, and he told me that many of the plants on our land (Wild Cherry, bracken fern, pokeberry) were indeed deadly. He suggested that rather than buy “nice goats”,  I go to the local livestock auction and buy “junk goats” which could clear the land for a few months before getting sick and dying of the poisonous plants. I told him that it was abhorrent to think of doing such a thing, and he said people did it here all the time. Needless to say, we opted for geese and ducks as pets over the goats.

 

One of the best examples of this disastrous thinking–and people’s sheer excitement about it–can be found in the 2017 invention of the “flow hive” that touts mechanization and efficiency. I wasn’t even going to write about this, thinking that the craze about it had finally died down. But the darned thing just won’t go away. A video of an advertisement for a “Flow Hive” keeps appearing on my social media feed, shared eagerly by non-beekeeping friends who think that I’ll be so excited about it because they know I keep bees. It just happened again last week and my friend was quite surprised by my response. I am not in love with the flow hive. As a druid and someone practicing sacred beekeeping, the flow hive saddens me and hurts my heart.  I’ve been hesitant to write about it, because good analyses of why the Flow Hive is a bad idea have circulated from various beekeeping sites, and I didn’t think I had a lot to add to this conversation. But upon reflection, I do have something to add from a spiritual and relationship-building perspective, and certainly, from the perspective of this broader conversation about cultivating a relationship to the living earth.

 

A good thing!

A good thing!

The flow hive, and many other things like it, represent the mechanization and industrialization of nature in the name of efficiency and productivity. What do I mean by mechanization? Common definitions of mechanization are simple: the process of converting work done by hand or with animals to doing work using machinery. A textbook definition of the machine is, simply, an apparatus that has several interconnecting parts and that use mechanical power to complete a task. Words surrounding machines often have to do with efficiency; in its entry under mechanization, for example, Wikipedia shares some delightful statistics about the inefficiency of humans (1-5% efficient) compared to internal combustion engines (20%), diesel engines (60%) or other methods (up to 90%). Here, these definitions suggest that the goal of doing work is to get it done as efficiently, that is, as easily and without additional labor, as possible. Efficiency, or getting something done quickly and with minimal effort, is an idea that Wendell Berry also takes to task in his Unsettling of America. The language of efficiency pervades our thinking, clouds or judgment, and ties us even more directly to the machine.

 

The assumption underlying the flow hive is simple: a more efficient beehive is a better one because it requires less effort and doesn’t require as much interaction with the bees. An efficient beehive will save us time and effort. If I can simply flip a switch and get the honey to flow out, that is such a better experience than having to pull frames. Uh, yeah, sure it is. When I argue against the flow hive, I’m attacked on several angles: I’m a Luddite and hate technology and progress; I am resistant to change, or I’m old fashioned.  My response is that I’m a druid.  There is something abhorrent about flipping a switch and turning my bees into a factory.

 

To understand why this whole idea is so abhorrent to me as a druid, we have to get to the goals and purposes for beekeeping, or any other practice that we do as human beings. What is the point of beekeeping, or doing any other work? Is it just to have an end product (honey) or is it also about the journey? The incredible smell of the hive as you open it, the observation of the bees in their work, the relationship that you can create with the bees, seeing bees in all stages of life, seeing the queen laying her eggs, watching the workers take care of larvae and pupae, seeing the wax exuding from the backs of the workers–these are all experiences that I treasure. Interaction and connection are two of the main reasons I keep bees–these things that have no price tag and they require only my time, expertise, and effort to experience. None of these experiences have to do with efficiency, productivity, or getting honey. These experiences have to do with the sacred relationship that a beekeeper develops with her beehive and the joy at studying and learning from the bees, who are true alchemists.

 

The flow hive, by its very mechanistic nature, not only disrupts the sacred interaction between the beekeeper and the bee, it does so at the name of efficiency. I see it no different from the other kinds of disruptions that humans often face when using machines to tame nature: you can’t really appreciate the beautiful spring day outside if 30 of your neighbors are running gas-guzzling machines all across their lawns. Its simply not the same to take a drive through the woods as opposed to a walk–the machine limits that interaction. Machines may be more efficient, but that’s the only thing they offer us, and efficiency is over-rated.

 

Another aspect of mechanization, which John Michael Greer writes about is the myth of power. In his “Myth of the Machine” post on the former Archdruid Report, he explores the relationship between machines and power, and suggests that part of the allure of machines in modern industrialized society is the allure of power. There is something, for modern humans, inherently appealing about the modern gizmos and gadgets that “do so much.” New products are sold on this basis: the new iPhone does more than the old iPhone, so of course, you want one so that you can do more with it.  Perhaps a more accurate advertisement would be that the new iPhone allows you as a human being to do less; that with each new device, the quest for efficiency becomes more complete.

 

Doing things the old way….at the North American Bushcraft School

By turning a simple switch of this flow hive, the beekeeper gains an immense amount of power over the bees. While honey harvesting used to be a careful dance between bee and beekeeper, allowing the beekeeper not only to check on the health of the hive and its honey reserves, honey harvesting is now a simplified mechanistic process. The dance of the honey harvest, the careful interactions, and care, are replaced by the machine. Who knows what is happening in the hive? The flow hive way tells you all that matters is what comes out–the honey itself.

 

But also by turning a simple switch, the beekeeper doesn’t need to have the skill to engage in that careful dance. The machine itself does the work, and the knowledge necessary to successfully harvest honey from a hive is rendered obsolete. By flipping the honey switch, we’ve traded our skilled labor, which involves paying attention to the hive’s disposition, engaging in multiple kinds of hand-eye coordination, and using wisdom just to gain a product that flows out of the hive and into your jar.  All of the sense of craft, skill, and knowledge is lost. Yes, doing it the old way takes more time–but the trade to efficiency doesn’t seem worth it. This is especially true because mechanization and efficiency, ultimately, means a loss of care and a loss of connection. When we stop opening up the beehive, we fail to see the magic and beauty and sacredness of the work of the bees. When we just turn a switch and pour out honey, an essential quality–care and interaction–has been stripped from the process. We have traded ease-of-use for care.

 

We can use this same kind of argument in all sorts of ways: when we stop producing our own food, we lose the magic of it, but also the connection to the earth by producing it.  The more that machines do for us, the more efficient our lives become, the less whole they really are.  We trade our ability to engage fully as people with the world and instead, become dependent on the machine–in the same way a new beekeeper is dependent on the switch in the flow hive for their honey.  In “Tool-Users vs. Homo Sapiens and the Megamachine” Louis Mumford writes of the end result of this process, “the beleaguered– even ‘obsolete’–individual would be entirely de-skilled, reduced to a passive, inert, trivial accessory to the machine.” Sounds kind of familiar, doesn’t it?  Isn’t this what is happening in today’s society? If we let machines and technology do everything for us, we are left with nothing but the ability to consume. No sets of core skills, and no connection to the living earth, all is done for us in the name of efficiency.

 

Its actually pretty entertaining to see news article after news article claiming things that anyone who spends time meditating in nature already knows: that all living beings have soul, methods of communication, and spirit. It doesn’t take science to tell me as a druid that trees communicate when they communicate with me daily.  It doesn’t take science to tell me that my chickens and guineas have their own unique communication styles and are deeply aware of their surroundings.  The myth that Decorate and so many others have propagated–that nature is a machine–is simply a smokescreen to take advantage of nature in the most abhorrent ways possible.

 

Beauty and mystery of nature

I write all of this because I think that these are some of the underlying ideas that we have to tackle–as druids–to really begin a paradigm shift.  Some technologies are really helpful to humanity (like say, basic refrigeration and washing machines.  I really appreciate the work that both do).  But many technologies and mechanizations take us further and further away from our ability to connect deeply with nature both by disconnecting us from the source of life (food, shelter, etc) and deskilling us. And at some point, we have to face the fact that we are likely better without a lot of these things and find ways of balancing our lives with useful technologies vs. those that actively harm us and our planet.

 

Since this has been mostly an opinion piece, I’ll end with a few takeaways that are useful practices to start these shifts:

  • Take one aspect of your life that you depend on industrialization or consumerism to fulfill and learn how to produce it yourself. As a few examples, I declared tomato independence many years ago, and make it a point to grow and preserve the tomato needs of my family for the year.  I also have recently been taking up fire-starting technologies using material from my land and also learning how to make my own paints.  While these may seem like small steps, they are highly fulfilling and empowering.
  • Look for industries that have the most egregious issues (like clothing, food) and try to make better choices, informed choices, choices that are rooted in care rather than efficiency and cost. You can’t often make every good choice due to the costs, but you can choose one or two areas to focus on.
  • Attend an earth skills gathering, like Mountaincraft or find a local Bushcraft school.  You can find a list here.  I attended my first gathering (Mountaincraft) earlier this year and was amazed by the number of skills and friendship offered at these places.  Since then, I’ve returned to the North American Bushcraft School for other classes (I was just there yesterday making leather bags!)  The Earth Skills community is teaching and modeling a more healthy paradigm and relationship with the living earth–and this kind of thing is a great deal of fun.
  • Examine your own assumptions and start checking those assumptions in your interaction with regards to things like growth, efficiency, etc.  As I shared before on this blog, mindset shifts are the keys to everything else: if we shift our mindsets, we can change the world.  These are insidious things that are rooted deeply in our subconscious.  Bringing them to a conscious place, examining them, and ridding oneself of them takes effort–but it is so worth it.  Surrounding yourself with people who are doing this same work really helps.
  • Have technology-free days where you embrace the darkness, spend time in nature, learn to make things slowly and by hand, and generally disconnect and allow yourself to simply be, un-impeded, with nature.  You’ll be glad you did!

This planet is being eradicated by the kinds of thinking and actions I’ve examined in this post.  I’m growing tired of inaction and tired of watching the thing that I hold sacred, and that I love, be under such threat.  If we change mindsets, we change the world.

 

17 Responses to “The Bee and the Machine: Moving Beyond Efficiency and towards Nature-Centeredness”

  1. Kieron Says:

    Many great points made here. I would recommend everyone read “Caliban And The Witch” by Silvia Federici, which has a chapter in how Descartes and his contemporaries robbed the world of its enchantment; additionally, during the period of roughly the 14th-17th centuries saw a tremendous change in the concept of the commons or commonwealth, the ability to be in relationship with the land (removal of peasantry and indigenous people by private landholders or nobility), and bodily autonomy (specifically, women’s autonomy) all of which were disrupted by the following: the rise of mechanization, imposition of authoritarian control by the church and secular powers (giving further rise to the witch burnings and hangings, and dispossession of women from their traditional roles as midwives and healers), and the shift toward colonialism and the attendant racism that resulted as Europe colonized the Americas, and the industrialization of everything under the Sun, and so forth. I’m only halfway through the book but I can easily make the connections to what you say here. The research in this book really makes it easy to see the big picture (and how it all went wrong, from our point of view as typical readers of this blog. it’s not light reading, let me warn you.

    • Dana Says:

      Yes to all of this. I’ve read a lot about the disenchantment of the world and the resulting issues, but I haven’t read that piece by Federici. I’d love to read it–thanks for the suggestion.

  2. littleacornstudio Says:

    Just this week I came across an article titled “Telling the Bees” and, in it, it said that ancient bee keeping families used to ensure that their bees were told about any important changes in the family— especially deaths but, also births and marriages. It was apparently believed that in not telling them, the bees could get sick and die. They would even put a black shroud of cloth over the hives when the family was mourning or they would introduce the new bride and groom to the bees, decorate the hives with flowers and leave them a piece of wedding cake! The article said it was believed that the beee were spiritual messengers able to take the families news back to their ancestors in the spiritual realm. I thought this was so sweet and also amazing!

  3. Becky Hughes McMillen Says:

    Tending goats is rather like beekeeping. I coexist with both species on my small farmstead. It takes skill and understanding (and the right fencing) to form a partnership with them. They share their milk with me and together we work to heal the land. I can only guess at their bloodlines which is fine with me. “Junk” goats can be healthy and happy if given a chance to do what they naturally do, which is freely browse plants and trees, including invasive and “poisonous” plants. Diversity in breeding and plant life is key. There’s a bit of wildness in them that refuses to be tamed and they seem to know what they need. Wild cherry, chokecherry and other native and introduced plants often have medicinal properties are beneficial and some prevent parasites. In a more natural habitat they only nibble at such plants. It’s not usually plants that kill them, it’s disease and parasites caused by factory farming techniques. On my farm the biggest danger is neighbor dogs. I don’t use wormers on them or chemicals on my soil. My goats are a family unit and they make it clear every day that I’m part of their family.

    • Dana Says:

      Thanks for sharing, Becky. I recently got to spend some time with some ornery and delightful goats. They certainly have personality! 🙂

  4. As always, your thoughts are right on! We would be in such a different world right now if most of us still saw/felt/knew the world as enchanted and alive. Moving from our home in Maine, and my large garden, was hard (a year ago in October). I have the ability to grow some things here where I rent, and a bit more at my son’s a short distance away. But not what I did. So I’ve had to pick and chose, and create a balance between growing herbs for Gaia’s Garden Herbals’ products, food, and flowers for beauty. Of course everything is beautiful, and every plant flowers. But to me being able to go out and pick a bouquet of, for example, zinnias and a few wild flowers or herbal flowers is just as important for my spirit and heart as food is for my body. So I’ve picked a few things to grow all I need of (garlic, carrots, green beans, and several herbs), and resign myself to just having a small amout of others and supporting local growers whenever possible for the rest. I buy A LOT of honey and my son and I would absolutely love to have bees. When I read about the flow hive, I just knew it wasn’t a good thing. I doubted it would be healthy for the bees, but also, as you write here, for the relationship. Bees are so very, very intelligent, and they get to know you and your habits. They feel your love and care and they give it back. I noticed this in my garden in Fryeburg, year after year. The bees (we had more bumbles than any other kind – same here in NY too), got to know me and we worked together. In recent years, when the bee populations crashed and no longer could I stand under the blooming crab apple tree and revel in the buzzing as it literally permated my body raising my own vibrations – it felt SO good! – my heart ached. Often I’d be in the garden with tears streaming down my face as I’d watch one lonely bumble bee visiting the comfrey flowers when there should have been so many more. The last year I was there (2018) there were more bees and it was better. But here in NY the bees are again scarce and I fear for their loss, and the ache we will all feel.

  5. kethuprofumo Says:

    Wonderful post, dear Dina! Indeed, our future depends on us. We must keep crafts, agriculture & other skills used by centuries. Thanks for helpful information you always share!

  6. Magalie Says:

    Thank you for your great article ❤ What do you think about veganism as a way of personally doing something to help the animals caught up in factory exploitation?

    • Dana Says:

      I think it is one of many good responses. Other people choose to support local farmers who are raising animals ethically, and not eating industrialized food as much as possible. A range of responses fit a range of different lifestyles. 🙂

  7. petetheplan Says:

    Reblogged this on petetheplan and commented:
    PREFACE TO HISTORY

    Seemingly all too soon our little children grow up to young adulthood, and before you know it they’re bravely marching off to war.
    Perhaps, in fairness and decency, before children are taught history, and the horrors of war, it would be wise to protect their minds, and feelings, firstly by explaining that those past war years are an unfortunate aftermath of what are called the Dark Ages.
    Also they should know that there are many decent and peaceful people in the world who are working to see an end of conflict and the horrors of war. Otherwise, what with ongoing war raging in so many parts of the world, plus most of our movies and games focused in violence and crime, children grow up anticipating war as inevitable.
    Children’s feelings are no less vulnerable than the feelings of soldiers in the battle-fields. The difference is that while soldiers suffer emotional conflict when ordered to commit atrocities at the front line of battle, survivors return home with PTSD, while their younger counterparts at school can only imagine what the soldiers have experienced.
    Reading about crime and violence does not have quite the same impact as first-hand experience, especially if one is at the receiving-end of bodily assault. Nobody who has received or given assault on the front line is ever the same again; they become hardened, or worse, emotionally-wounded, which has now come to be medically recognised as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
    In the meantime – and times are getting meaner by the day if we go by what the news-media say – 30% of the younger generation will be enlisted in the armed forces or the police force. It should therefore be considered a duty-of-care, on all those involved with education, to adequately prepare our children for what they may be faced in coming year, during the interim-period we’re in before the world is restored to sanity.
    Healthy ageing and energy-efficiency go hand-in-hand. Un-healthy ageing and fuel-poverty are virtually synonymous since one feeds off the other, whereas as natural ageing keeps physical body-heat levels balanced despite climate variations and temperature extremes. The blood-stream of the human body is designed to maintain a balanced internal temperature in all seasons.
    However, unhealthy ageing will impact our internal balance if the emotional realm is compromised by depression.
    Inability to deal with stress is, understandably, a major cause of depression. Since stress levels can increase, and become more severe in older people than in youngsters, there is a greater need for stress-management in later life.
    This brings us back to safe-guarding the emotional realm against depression; for if the emotional realm is compromised by depression, the endocrine system fails to respond correctly, and the adrenals simply don’t excrete enough necessary adrenaline to compensate for external variations of temperature.
    With very little training, and increased understanding of how the body best functions in stressful conditions, part of the elder’s daily regime should include a few moments of meditation on caring for their well-being and health. It’s not enough to simply increase medications, and turn up the thermostat, if you’re feeling cold and lonely; especially lonely, because at times, one’s own company can be one’s best friend.
    When that realisation dawns, one is well on-the-way to being over one of the greatest, and most fearful expectations about ageing; i.e. the fear of senility and dementia, implied by those wretched triangular road-signs, depicting an elderly couple hunched over and leaning on canes, displayed at road-crossings.
    Those signs are perhaps the worst wrongful imagination of those who designed them, and the brain-washing they cause, to youngsters in every generation, conditions our children to expect failure and decay in later years, instead of our inherent potential of maturing in grace and stature.
    Another compromising factor that causes a delay in emotional maturing, is that in later years people have a right to be grumpy, and even rude, and that because of their seniority the younger generation must accept their mood-swings and treat them with respect. Most children treat their elders with respect anyway, despite their idiosyncrasies, but how much more pleasant it would be for all concerned if elders, and youngster, learned to control their emotions instead of allowing their ill-feelings to dictate their behaviour.
    Unfortunately, that aspect of growing up is not covered within the curriculum of our educational system, and is therefore, along with some basic truths about our anatomy, and what the glands of our endocrine system are for, is something that would usefully be included in general education. However, if it wasn’t covered, it’s never too late to introduce a short refresher-course in the interests of sustainable living now, within the aims of this new program.

  8. Peter Watson Says:

    Hi Dana — a great article — thanks! I’d like to share some of my thoughts along similar lines concerning sustainable homes; especially the body we inhabit.Please see my Comment: —

    *PREFACE TO HISTORY*

    Seemingly all too soon our little children grow up to young adulthood, and before you know it they’re bravely marching off to war.

    Perhaps, in fairness and decency, before children are taught history, and the horrors of war, it would be wise to protect their minds, and feelings, firstly by explaining that those past war years are an unfortunate aftermath of what are called the Dark Ages.

    Also they should know that there are many decent and peaceful people in the world who are working to see an end of conflict and the horrors of war. Otherwise, what with ongoing war raging in so many parts of the world, plus most of our movies and games focused in violence and crime, children grow up anticipating war as inevitable.

    Children’s feelings are no less vulnerable than the feelings of soldiers in the battle-fields. The difference is that while soldiers suffer emotional conflict when ordered to commit atrocities at the front line of battle, survivors return home with PTSD, while their younger counterparts at school can only imagine what the soldiers have experienced.

    Reading about crime and violence does not have quite the same impact as first-hand experience, especially if one is at the receiving-end of bodily assault. Nobody who has received or given assault on the front line is ever the same again; they become hardened, or worse, emotionally-wounded, which has now come to be medically recognised as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    In the meantime – and times are getting meaner by the day if we go by what the news-media say – 30% of the younger generation will be enlisted in the armed forces or the police force. It should therefore be considered a duty-of-care, on all those involved with education, to adequately prepare our children for what they may be faced in coming year, during the interim-period we’re in before the world is restored to sanity.

    Healthy ageing and energy-efficiency go hand-in-hand. Un-healthy ageing and fuel-poverty are virtually synonymous since one feeds off the other, whereas as natural ageing keeps physical body-heat levels balanced despite climate variations and temperature extremes. The blood-stream of the human body is designed to maintain a balanced internal temperature in all seasons.

    However, unhealthy ageing will impact our internal balance if the emotional realm is compromised by depression.

    Inability to deal with stress is, understandably, a major cause of depression. Since stress levels can increase, and become more severe in older people than in youngsters, there is a greater need for stress-management in later life.

    This brings us back to safe-guarding the emotional realm against depression; for if the emotional realm is compromised by depression, the endocrine system fails to respond correctly, and the adrenals simply don’t excrete enough necessary adrenaline to compensate for external variations of temperature.

    With very little training, and increased understanding of how the body best functions in stressful conditions, part of the elder’s daily regime should include a few moments of meditation on caring for their well-being and health. It’s not enough to simply increase medications, and turn up the thermostat, if you’re feeling cold and lonely; especially lonely, because at times, one’s own company can be one’s best friend.

    When that realisation dawns, one is well on-the-way to being over one of the greatest, and most fearful expectations about ageing; i.e. the fear of senility and dementia, implied by those wretched triangular road-signs, depicting an elderly couple hunched over and leaning on canes, displayed at road-crossings.

    Those signs are perhaps the worst wrongful imagination of those who designed them, and the brain-washing they cause, to youngsters in every generation, conditions our children to expect failure and decay in later years, instead of our inherent potential of maturing in grace and stature.

    Another compromising factor that causes a delay in emotional maturing, is that in later years people have a right to be grumpy, and even rude, and that because of their seniority the younger generation must accept their mood-swings and treat them with respect. Most children treat their elders with respect anyway, despite their idiosyncrasies, but how much more pleasant it would be for all concerned if elders, and youngster, learned to control their emotions instead of allowing their ill-feelings to dictate their behaviour.

    Unfortunately, that aspect of growing up is not covered within the curriculum of our educational system, and is therefore, along with some basic truths about our anatomy, and what the glands of our endocrine system are for, is something that would usefully be included in general education. However, if it wasn’t covered, it’s never too late to introduce a short refresher-course in the interests of sustainable living now, within the aims of this new program.

    Kind regards, Peter

    On Sun, 24 Nov 2019 at 13:33, The Druid’s Garden wrote:

    > Dana posted: ” Over the course of the last four centuries, the Western > World has created a set of “unshakable” principles concerning the natural > world: that nature is just another machine, that animals don’t feel and do > not have souls, that plants and animals aren’t” >

    • Dana Says:

      Hi Peter,
      Thank you for your thoughts. I fully agree that part of this equation is the care and treatment of both our young and our old. This culture only values able-bodied adults who are able to work, tying to the growth at all costs mentality, industrialization, and capitalism. The elderly are shipped off to facilities that “care” for them (not really) and the young are put in day cares….I don’t think this is the way it should be. Our elders have so much to teach, our children have so much to learn.
      Blessings,
      Dana


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